How deadly is Phossy Jaw Disease?

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Phossy jaw disease is also known as phosphorus necrosis of jaw. This disease is resulted from breathing in fumes from white phosphorus. Typically, the disease is associated with painful condition due to gum and toothaches swelling. In 1830, a French chemist named Charles Sauria first introduced the white phosphorus as an active component of matches. Hence, Phossy jaw disease was introduced to show effect of too much inhale of such component. However, the disease can be deadly. Let us know more on this article on how deadly is the disease to human health especially if you are one person who is very exposed to white phosphorus.

Phossy jaw disease is job-related condition that had become widespread during the 19th century and early part of 20th century. This is among people who work in the match industry where the presence and used of white phosphorus is very common. Phosphorus-based matches are highly hazardous to health. The inhalation of phosphorus is not only toxic but also can lead to different bone disorders and one of these is the Phossy jaw.

With frequent inhalation of phosphorus, accumulation of phosphorus takes place. As this happens, jaw bones can lead to degeneration, thus resulting to Phossy jaw disease. Dental pain is the initial stage of the disease. If the pain is unbearable, the phosphorus poison could be chronic already. In most cases, it is the lower jawbone that gets affected but there are some cases where patients have the condition developed on their upper jawbone.

Apart from unbearable dental pains, another sign of phosphorus poisoning is inflamed, swollen, and red gums. As the disease becomes progressive, talking and eating could be severely difficult. Also, the affected jaw area gets infected and could lead to pus formation with foul odor when break through. Decaying with awful smell can also result from sore jawbone.

In the early times, treatment for Phossy jaw disease is done through surgery where jawbone is extracted and removed. The common side effect of this treatment is facial disfigurement. On the other hand, if treatment of the disease is ignored, the infection may spread and it could lead to subsequent death and multiple organ failure. Other associated health complications also include seizures, pulmonary hemorrhage, and brain inflammation.

In 1888, the match factory of Bryant and May in London had become a wide public issue in London. This is because of the striking of workforce consisting of more than 1, 400 girls and women who had refused to work back in the factory until their demands are given. The match workers complain on their unhealthy working conditions inside the factory as well as the increasing number of workers who fall victim to the health condition of Phossy jaw disease. Of course, this is because of the severe exposure of white phosphorus. Moreover, the workers also complain on their long working hours and inadequate pay scale.

As result of the wide publicity, the factory owners had given to the demands of the workers. And in 1901, the factory had completely stopped as well as the use of white phosphorus in making matches. In 1908, a law was enforced in London prohibiting the use of phosphorus-based matches. Soon other countries had followed to this prohibition.

What is Cori Cycle?

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Cori cycle refers to the essential process of metabolism that aids our bodies to produce extra amount of required energy for the muscles to perform exhausting activity. The Cori cycle originated its name from the physicians Carl and Gerty Cori. This couple had first mapped the cycle in 1929. In this article, we will learn more about Cori cycle and other explanations about the cycle process. Read along.

Another term of Cori cycle is lactic acid cycle which involves two organs, the liver and the contracting muscle. The cycle functions in conditions of anaerobic when the muscles contracted under decreased oxygen. The contracting muscles build lactate that is supplied to the liver. Then the liver converts the lactate to glucose.

Understanding the functions of the human body is important as well as analyzing the various tiny processes taking place inside the body. Such processes act together in combination, which allows us to live and do all our activities every day. Among these processes is the Cori cycle. Through this process, the body assumes an alternate metabolic route to eliminate lactate and continue to produce energy.

The extra energy produced from Cori cycle is often used in muscle activities of our daily routines like weight lifting, running, standing, walking, and more. The force from this energy is directly equated to the strength of the activity being done. During the cycle, the accumulated lactate in the muscle cells is consumed by the liver and the liver executes the chemical process called gluconeogenesis wherein lactate is converted back to glucose. This is in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), which should be replenished constantly during muscles activity.

Cori cycle operates more effectively when the muscles activity is ceased. During this occurrence, the oxygen balance can be made up so that the electron transport chain and citric cycle may resume their function. Cori cycle has no inhibitors but it has modulators that are inhibitors of the enzymes performing on the cycle. One way to decrease the activity of the cycle is to decrease the muscular activity. As the muscular activity decreases, the required energy of the body also decreases in the way that glucose decreases the ATP supply to the muscle cells.

In general, the six ATP molecules taken up in the process of gluconeogenesis cost two ATP molecules in the process of glycolysis. A single iteration of the process of Cori cycle should be maintained a fix consumption of only four ATP molecules. If this is not followed, the cycle is not sustained for the continuous period of time. Also, if there is an intensive consumption of ATP molecules, the Cori cycle transfers the burden of metabolic process from muscles to the liver.

According to the study of a tracer kinetic technique, epinephrine has effect on the activity of Cori cycle. The underneath layering injection of epinephrine into a living object can activate the process of gluconeogenesis and increased the utilization of glucose in the body. Other purposes of Cori cycle are recycling of carbon skeletons between the liver and muscles, and transportation of ammonium to liver and convert it to urea. Compared to other natural cycles, Cori cycle is not a whole closed circle.

The Health Benefits of Papaya

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The papaya fruit has musky, fleshy, and sweet taste. Once it ripens, its skin feels soft and contains yellowish-orange color. It produces the entire year without any particular season. However, the fruit is highly consumed during the early fall and summer. Useful enzymes are contained in this fruit but these enzymes may vanish once it ripens, thus it should be consumed while it is still unripe and green in color. It is during this phase that papaya has plenty of health benefits. Let us learn more of these benefits in this article.

Carica Papaya is the scientific name for papaya plant. It has zero tolerance on cold weather. Its origin is from America’s tropical regions but was first cultivated in Mexico. Today, cultivation of the plant is prevalent in all tropical regions in the world.

Two important enzymes present in papaya plant are chymopapain and papain, which aid in protein digestions of the body. It helps in the treatment of wounds, inflammation, and edemas. It also prevents deformation of cornea scar and treats insect stings. Comparatively these enzymes are more active and abundant than the rest of the contained enzymes in the fruit.

Papaya fruit contains antioxidant nutrients like Vitamin E, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C, which aid in the reduction of inflammatory symptoms. It is greatly beneficial for people with asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. The papaya seeds can prevent particular kidney diseases, Staph & Salmonella infections, and E-Coli. The extracts of the seeds can also prevent intestinal parasites and aid liver detoxification.

The dietary fiber content of papaya fruit acts as natural remedy for regular digestive problems like the constipation. This active ingredient eliminates toxins from the body as well as the digestive tract. Other healthful benefits of the fruit include production of tonic effect in intestines and stomach, motion sickness, and nausea management.

Regular consumption of papaya fruit can help decrease colon cancer risk and prevent lung problems. If you are suspected of a lung cancer, you should consider including papaya in your daily diet. For men who are suspected with prostate cancer should consider combining green tea with the papaya fruit. This is a great health benefit.

One great health benefit from papaya fruit is lowering the cholesterol levels. In this way, stroke can be prevented as oxidation of cholesterol could be one major cause. As the cholesterol oxidizes, it begins to accumulate in the walls of the blood vessels inside the body. When this happens, plaques are formed and discontinue the supply of blood to the brain. Since papaya fruit is rich in antioxidants, cholesterol oxidation is prevented.

Papaya fruit is also good in treating infections and illnesses. The nutrients present in this fruit like Vitamin A and Vitamin C can strengthen the immune system, which is good in fighting cold and flu. Apart from boosting the immune system, papaya is also best for erectile dysfunction. In eating papaya, it could improve the ability of the body to produce nitric oxide that can arouse erection.

Lastly, papaya is beneficial for age-related illnesses especially for vision loss related diseases in older adults.

The Health Benefits of Water Aerobics

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Water aerobics is a form of outdoor exercise that is great in shedding those extra pounds from your body. It is the best exercise during the summer season. Apart from the combination of exercise and fun, water aerobics involve rhythmic style movements with dancing steps. Every session has duration of 40-50 minutes. The overall workout program of water aerobics increases gradually from basic to high intensity steps, thus bringing many healthy benefits to the people doing it. Let us know more about these health benefits in this article.

Compared to other safe alternative and standard aerobics, water aerobics is a great workout for the elderly because it improves the muscle endurance and cardiovascular health. It is also better than other exercises because it focuses on body parts like the back, neck, abdomen, chest, and limbs. Water aerobics require low force of workout, thus it is beneficial for people with diabetes, back pain, obesity, osteoporosis, joint problems, and arthritis.

When doing water aerobics, our body weight submerged in the water because of buoyancy. The body weight lightens at about 80% of the body weight. This means, there is a low risk of physical injuries and muscle strains on the torso, back, and joints.

Water aerobics is a resistance training thus toning of body muscles is rapid as long as the exercise is done regularly. Resistance is exerted from all directions on the working muscles. This is the reason why walking in the water for one hour or so can burn many calories twice as much as walking on the land could. With this kind of benefit, it becomes a portable rehabilitation of orthopedic patients and injured athletes.

Another great benefit of water aerobics is the improved condition of cardiovascular health because it can increase the level of good cholesterol in the body, which helps improve the blood circulation. Unlike other forms of aerobics, water aerobics give steady heart rate while working out.

Apart from the calories that are lost from less strain of water aerobics, it is also associated with relaxation, fun, more pleasure, low levels of fatigue and anxiety. For pregnant women, the aerobics can help reduce back stress and joint pain. The risk of tipping or falling over is also prevented because of the water’s supportive property.

Since water aerobics is usually practice during summer season, water is good for the body temperature and can prevent overheating. Through this exercise, the body temperature is maintained with constant temperature.

In performing water aerobics, instructor is a must. Though this exercise is done on swimming pools, it can be costly if you don’t have a pool in your warehouse. However, if you are really eager to do this form of aerobics, pool membership would is definitely a requirement. Due to possible long hours of doing this aerobics in a pool with chemical disinfectants, skin infections and irritations may occur. To avoid this from happening, make sure to take a proper shower once you get out of the pool. Also, ensure to use proper swimming attire to reduce the risk of waterborne irritations and infections.

Ways to Quit Drinking

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Quitting a regular vice is hard for most people especially if the vice is already part of their routines. One vice that is common in people of today is drinking. People who are into drinking habit are not easy to quit. Getting alcohol out of their lives would require them much efforts and intentions. If you have this kind of habit then this article is a good read for you as this will give you guidance on gradual procedures on ways to quit drinking. Take time to read to know more.

Alcohol addiction can bring pain, loss, and suffering to any households and relationships. It brings miserable lives to the addicted person as well as to the people around him. In most cases, the alcoholic realizes very late on his wrong doing and then try to make an attempt to rearrange his life and quit drinking for good. Sometimes, something would trigger them to realize like accidents in the family or wreckage of family relationships.

As you begin to get over and dump alcohol, your psychological conditioning is essential. Your mind and body should be both ready on the journey of quitting alcohol. You should have the mindset on how difficult it would be to experience the procedures of quitting alcohol. As soon as you have the mindset and body ready, the next step to do is acceptance. Accept in yourself that you have drinking problem and you need help. In this way, workable solution for you would be easily crafted.

If you want to quit alcohol, make your decision a conscious and serious one so as others would treat it seriously on you as well. Your self-esteem and integrity are important when making a quitting decision. In this way you can earn the respect of others as you try to stay away from alcohol.

Being stubborn in quitting alcohol is a great help. Make your decision to quit as your highest priority in order to avoid unnecessary social events of drinking. In this way, you will not be easily convinced by people around you to drink. Instead they would support your abstinence from alcohol. Also, surround yourself with people who can help you in your battle of alcoholism. It is important that you will not relapse from your decision to quit drinking.

If you belong in a support group of people who have the same cases of alcoholism as you, share your encouraging stories of triumph in alcohol resistance. Sharing the same stories with people of same situations is extremely crucial as the process of quitting can be difficult.

If it’s really hard for you to avoid attending any social event or gathering, you can say a polite “no” to people who would offer you an alcohol drink. You can either excuse yourself stating that you do not drink or you don’t feel like having one at the time. You do not need to announce that you are on the process of quitting drinking as you will only embarrassed yourself by doing so. On the contrary, if you feel proud of stating it, then have the courage to admit it in front of other people.

If your alcoholism problem is chronic then it’s best to seek medical help in order to cope better. You can either join programs on alcohol detoxifications and rehabilitations for severe conditions of alcoholism.

Lastly, conviction to quit drinking is the most important technique. This is the secret ingredient that you need to have before you start the process.

Myths and Facts about HIV/AIDS

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Have you heard about the various myths about HIV/AIDS? These myths had been spreading throughout the years without any proof. Because of these myths, people get paranoid and scared over the disease of HIV/AIDS. They get ignorant on what the disease is all about and how it can spread and transmitted from one person to person. They also get unaware on the extra cautions that need to be observed when someone has the disease. Let us discuss more about these myths and the facts associated with it as we go along the article.

One myth popularly believed by people is that if a person is HIV positive, it means they are already affected with AIDS. People need to know that HIV diagnosis does not always means AIDS. Once the HIV infection manifested at its advanced stage, the condition of AIDS is diagnosed. With the right treatment of initially diagnosed stage of HIV, the infection can be prevented and suppressed from advancing to the final stages that may result to AIDS.

Another myth that had been spreading around the world about the disease of HIV/AIDS is that if both partners are already infected with HIV, they can always have unprotected sex. This myth is a risky sexual behavior and should not be followed as it will only make the current treatment ineffective. The virus of the disease can easily mutate and have multiple strains. If the two HIV infected partners will have unprotected sex, they are just reinserting themselves with the different strains, thus the ongoing treatment becomes ineffective.

The myth about that mosquito can spread HIV infection thru blood transmission had been around for many years. Though HIV is a blood-borne infection, it does not mean that its virus can be transmitted to a healthy person thru mosquito bite. The theory of the myth may appear logical but extensive researches had revealed that HIV transmission is not possible thru mosquito bites.

First, we have to understand that mosquitoes just suck the blood of its victims and are not capable of passing their own blood to the victim’s body. To make it clear, mosquito mouth parts have structures of needle-like, thus the human body is only bared to mosquito saliva and the blood. Besides, even if the virus is inside the body of mosquitoes, it cannot live for long because mosquitoes don’t have cells that can proliferate the virus. Even if the virus is present inside the mosquito body, it cannot harm the mosquito instead it is digested inside it.

One interesting myth about HIV/AIDS that had been spreading today is about having sexual intercourse with a virgin as this gives remedy to the disease. This is known as the virgin cure or cleansing myth. Because of this myth, sexual abuse in young children by HIV-infected men in South Africa is happening. Though the history of this myth cannot be traced, it became popular during the Victorian era of the British Empire in the 19th century. The myth was also considered as remedy for sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis and gonorrhea in Victorian England. The reality that HIV is not curable, having unprotected sex with a person regardless if virgin or not, can actually worsen the risk of HIV infection.

A myth says that being diagnosed with HIV infection already means the end of life. This is not true. With the advancement of medical science today and with proper care, the life span of HIV patients had increased substantially. New drugs had been developed as well. Just maintain a productive life and your condition can be managed effectively.

What is a Tapping Therapy?

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Tapping therapy is making its way today to controversial topics as one possible treatment for various health problems. This therapy is said to gain many supporters already, however there are still people who still doubt on its credibility as a form of treatment. Let’s have a discussion on the techniques of tapping therapy and its relevance as health treatment. We will also discuss the authenticity of this therapy and critics’ views as we pursue this article.

Tapping therapy is also known as EFT or Emotional Freedom Technique. It is based on the idea of controlling the energy meridians in the body. It taps the acupressure points in the body. Such therapy is used to heal psychological problems and eliminate negative emotions disturbing the body’s energy field. Unlike the acupuncture process, this therapy does not use needles.

Tapping therapy is also a weight loss treatment. Origin cause of weight gain is treated by this therapy. All negative thoughts and emotions existing in the body and obstructing the energy flow are one of the major contributories in weight gain. Factors like stress, emotional disturbances, and trauma of the past are among the reasons for these. Overeating is the common result of all these contributories and factors then leads to weight gain. To start the tapping therapy in weight loss treatment, patients are instructed to meditate first then certain places on the body are tapped. As first effect of the therapy, patients normally get their energy on re-balanced.

Tapping therapy is also advantageous as anxiety or panic attacks treatment. As we all know, anxiety or panic attacks are very hard to deal with. As the attacks happen, it is also associated with series of dilemma that are often uncontrollable, and staying calm is really impossible. Using the therapy in this situation should be done at times when there are no attacks. It should be practiced on a regular basis making the person immune to the techniques of the therapy. As the person uses the therapy, deep breathing should be practiced as well as it aids the regulation of oxygen flow inside the body. Such measure can bring the person’s body to its normal condition.

Though the credibility of the tapping therapy cannot be proven yet in terms of any scientific proofs, the therapy had been used by number of people already. Critics have called the therapy as “pseudoscientific”. They said that the reliefs attained by those people who have benefited from the therapy are based on traditional components and rather more of a placebo effect.

Understanding tapping therapy is easy. All of its information is easily accessible in different sources especially from the Internet. However, the use and employment of such therapy as treatment to our healthy is still risky especially if you have a certain condition that is very critical when associated with other forms of treatment. Thus, it is still best to consult an expert in your health problems and secure their authentic advises or feedback in the use of tapping therapy as treatment.

What is Jerusalem Syndrome?

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Nowadays, different kinds and names of syndromes exist. The names of the syndrome are commonly based on the cultures, practices, and behaviors of a certain place, group of people, or object. One of the syndromes we’re referring to is the Jerusalem Syndrome, which is a unique kind of psychological disorder monitored by some tourists who have visited the City of Jerusalem. Let us learn more about the Jerusalem Syndrome and how it came to be as a kind of syndrome today.

Jerusalem Syndrome is a set of symptoms happening simultaneously and leads to characterize certain abnormality or condition. It triggers a set of psychological disorders like psychopathic or delusion right after visiting the city. This mental phenomenon is often associated with hallucinations, psychosis, or obsessions. No need to worry much of this syndrome if you opt to visit the City of Jerusalem as not everyone is affected with this. Though everyone can get affected regardless if you’re a Muslim, Christian, or Jew.

Jerusalem Syndrome has different types and subtypes as well. These types are based on the findings and symptoms shown from all the tourists who come to the city and acquired the syndrome. One type is those without previous history of any mental disorders. This type often attack tourists in Jerusalem with some kind of psychotic illness while at the city but recover fast once they returned to their home countries already. Most of them are Protestants. Comparatively, there are less cases of this type. Among the conditions associated with this type are the following:

  • strange psychotic reactions like agitation, tension, nervousness, and anxiety
  • separation anxiety from the large group during the tour in the City of Jerusalem
  • desire to be always clean and doing frequent showers and baths
  • obsessive cutting of toenails and fingernails
  • wanting to wear a white toga-like gown with ankle-length
  • feel like shouting and singing out loud of Bible verses, religious hymns, and psalms
  • wanting to conduct marching or procession to some holy places in the city
  • delivering oration or homily to some places in the city in regards to adopting of moral and simpler life

Another type of Jerusalem Syndrome is those overlaid on previous illness. In this type, the tourists affected were already affected with psychotic disorders before they arrived in Jerusalem to visit. Their minds are heavily influenced with religious ideas as they are attack by the syndrome. This type has three subtypes – identification with religious characters, identification with ideas, and magical ideas.

Overlaid on idiosyncratic ideations is another type of Jerusalem Syndrome. In this type, tourists coming in the city are having obsessions in certain things. They often have personality disorders but without any psychosis. Majority of tourists who were attached by this type came from large travel groups. Most of them are Christians who were staying outside the churches within the city.

The behavioral trends of those tourists attacked by the Jerusalem Syndrome are specifically based on their religious backgrounds. This was observed by most psychiatrists in Jerusalem who had given medications to the patients. However for the syndrome type of those without previous history of any mental disorders, medications are no longer given to them as they get back to their natural state in a week time. They are just being observed and no certain treatment is given to them.

The Human’s Oldest Known Diseases

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Once a human is affected with a disease, all his normal body functions are disrupted. Nowadays, diseases for humans come in different forms and types. It is also caused and developed by different factors and technological advancements. Some diseases are innovative already possibly due to mutation viruses and bacteria. Some are even as old as the ancient times that still exist up to the recent time. Let us learn more of the human’s oldest known diseases that still continue to exist and propagate today. Read along.

One of the oldest known human diseases that still exist today is the leprosy. This disease had been prevalent for more than thousands of years. The earliest evidence of this disease is from an archeological discovery in India of a 4,000 year old skeleton. However, the earliest record of the disease was found in Egypt dated back around 1500 B.C. In the early times, people having leprosy were rejected by the society and inhabited in colonies and eventually die there. Same thing are done with people who have psoriasis or syphilis and misdiagnosed as leprosy infected.

Historically, cancer is another oldest known disease in humans. It had exhibited itself throughout diverse populations. The earliest evidence of occurrence of this disease is found in Egypt wherein fossils of mummies were discovered with presence of various cancers. Moreover, medical texts describing the disease were discovered dating back to 3000 B.C. Apart from this, the fossils were also present with incident of cauterization whereas possible tumors or excessive bile from the body are removed.

Another oldest known disease in humans is rabies, which had been dominant since 2000 B.C. The disease was first talk about in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna during the 1930 B.C. During the ancient times, if a person was bitten by an animal with rabies infection, a heated metal instrument is used to cauterize the wound. In some situations, the tongue is even cut off because ancient people believe that it can also cause rabies.

Cholera is one ancient water-borne disease caused by intestinal infection. Disease was cataloged by an Athenian physician named Hippocrates in 400 B.C. but it was implied that the disease had originated long before at the banks of Ganges River in India. During the early times, cholera had caused pandemics and outbreaks in various parts of the world leaving high percentage of human deaths.

One long-standing disease that had been around for 9,000 years is the Tuberculosis. This was evidently found in the skeletal corpses of Egyptian mummies dated 3000 B.C. In the past, the condition was called as “consumption” because the disease is progressive and can incinerate the body’s system.

Way back 2700 B.C. in China, records of Malaria disease had been found. Its prevalence had been high all throughout the Roman Empire, thus it was initially called as “Roman fever”.  The first recorded incident of Typhoid happened in Athens during the 430 B.C. The incident had wiped out 30% of the city’s population during that time. This was confirmed by the scientists’ decades after when there was presence of DNA sequence in the dental tissues of the buried corpse in the city.

Last of the oldest known disease in humans what we will discuss in this article is the Smallpox. Evidences of this disease in the past were seen in various parts of the world like the records in China during the 1122 B.C., the mummy of Ramses V in 1145 B.C., and in the medical writings from India during the 1500 B.C.

Things to Consider when Getting Braces

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Getting braces is not a choice of fashion. It is a medical recommendation from dental expert whether you need to get one or not. It helps realigned crooked teeth and repositioned it for better cosmetic appearance. Once you consider getting braces, there are certain dietary restrictions that you need to follow strictly. There could be discomfort in your oral cavity after wearing the braces but you can manage it. Every 3-4 weeks, you also need to see a doctor to tighten the braces. These are just among the few things you need to consider when getting braces. More of these things are discussed along in this article.

Before you decide to wear braces, determine first if you have allergy on nickel. This is every important so you could avoid any forms of reactions or sensitivities. Sports activity is okay even if you have braces. You can join in any sports however you have to wear orthodontic mouth guard for protection against oral cavity damages.

Choosing the right doctor for your braces is relatively important. Taking an appointment with orthodontist is necessary as they are the ones who do the braces and not the dentist. An orthodontist is expert in correcting misaligned teeth by applying non-surgical methods like braces. He is a certified specialist in treatment of crowded teeth, under-bites, and overbite.

The procedure of getting braces can be painful as tongue retractors are used to fix the dental braces. Only orthodontists are specialized to do this procedure. The retractor is designed to prevent the tongue from moving and keep it steady while the braces are being attached by the orthodontist. This process can be very discomforting.

Toothaches should be anticipated as well right after the application of braces. The aches are prominent during the first few weeks possibly because of the pressure of the braces on the teeth. Eventually, once you are accustomed in using the braces, the pains are essentially tolerable. To numb the pains, you can have frozen foods like ice cream or ice cubes. You can also whoosh with warm salt water.

As mentioned above, there are dietary restrictions when wearing braces. Certain foods should be avoided such as sticky and hard foods as these can notoriously dislodge your braces. Stay away from chewing gum, hard candy, popcorn, nuts, and even raw vegetables like carrots. Instead go for soft foods like cooked vegetables.

When you have braces, the chances of having food stuck in between are high. Whatever food you eat and despite whooshing properly still the food gets stuck. This is one of the irritating events when wearing braces. One way to ease the food stuck is to chew your food carefully and brush your teeth well every after meal. Daily flossing is also very important though it may take a number of minutes to complete.

Inner cheeks tend to get hurt when you get braces as they rub against the gums. This usually happens during sleep because the braces are pressed against the inner cheeks. To cure this, you can apply dental wax on the braces.

Tightening the braces is one procedure that you need to do regularly every month because braces are likely to loose and may need adjustments. This may cause discomfort but positive results afterwards.