Obese Article

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obesity2obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally.atleast 2.8 million people are dying each year as a result of being obese.in 2014,more than 1.9 billion adults,were over weight according to who(world health organisation).when bmi(basal metabolic index) is 25.0-29.9 person is said to be over obese.obesity once associated with high income countries, obesity is now prevalent in low&middle income countries, obesity is usually result of imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended.increase consumption of high calorific foods with out equal increase in physical activity leads to unhealthy increase in weight.decrease levels in physical activity will also result in an energy imbalance&lead to weight gain

causes

lack of energy imbalance-lack of energy imbalance most often cause obesity.means energy in(amount of energy or calories you get from food&drinks)equals(amount of energy your body uses for things like breathing,digesting)

other causes-

inactive life style-main reason people spend hours in front of tv’s.

environment-lack of walks.not having area parks,trails&affordable gym makes people hard to be physically active.

work schedule-people often say they dont have time to be physically active.

over sized food portion-exposed to huge food portion in rest,movie theter,super markets,even at home.some of these meals&snacks can feed more than two people.large portion means too much energy in cause over weight if it isnt balanced with physical activity.

lack of access to healthy foods such as fruits,vegetables.

genetic causes-genes play role in result global up surge can directly cause obesity.

when the person is obese he has disturbed sleep cycle, weight gain,folds on skin, high blood pressure,high cholestrol

how to cure obesity?

1.talk with your doctor about your diet-you may also need to work with an obesity specialist or a nutritionist or dietitian.

2.reduce the number of calories you eat and eat healthier foods-dont restrict calories severly.experts recommend losing 1-2 pounds per week. people who try crash diets usually gain the weight back. also, avoid fad diets.you need a diet you can maintain for life.

3.start therapy sessions-therapists can teach you to cope with food and cravings and anxiety that may lead to over eating.

4.consider joining a support group to meet others who are overweight-you may also meet people who’ve had success with losing weight.

5.ask your doctor about orlistat,a medicine approved by the u.s-government of weight loss

orlistat, which blocks absorption of fat,is not effective by itself, but,rather,when coupled with dietary changes and exercise.patients have lost 5(2.3kg) to 7lbs.(3.2kg) more than those not taking the drug after 1 or 2 years

6.speak with your doctor about weight loss surgery if your body-mass index is 40 or higher,or if your bmi is 35 or above and you need to lose weight for urgent medical reasons such as diabetes.some surgery reduce the amount of food your stomach holds.

Tuberculosis

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tuberculosis3Tuberculosis mainly affect lungs and it is a airborn disease it is characterized by mainly formation of nodules in the tissues especially in lungs.It is a contagious disease it may also affect other parts of the body.It is usually treated with treatment of drugs taken for 6 months to 2 years depending on the type of infection.

TYPES OF TUBERCULOSIS-It is of two types pulmonary and extra pulmonary.

PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS-It is most uncommon type of tuberculosis it is very infectious. Patients have high fever and have cough it is seen more commonly in elderly and young children it is also seen in immuno suppressive patients such as HIV and AIDS.

EXTRA PULMONARY-This type is seen most commonly immunocompromised patients.This is seen commonly in Lymph node disease,Tueberculosis pericarditis,Renal tuberculosis and Adrenal tuberculosis ,Tuberculosis meningitis.

CAUSES OF TUBERCULOSIS-

-Crowded living condition.

-Heavy smoking.

-Alcholism.

-HIV infection.

-Low social economic status.

-Genetic.

-Migration from one place to another.

-People with low immune sysytem.

-DIABETES.

-Malnutrition.

SYMPTOMS-Fever,chills,cough with blood which lasts for about 1-3 weeks,weight loss,chest pain,Sweating at night,Sudden weight loss and many other symptoms.

TREATMENT-There are anti tuberculosis drugs such as rifampin,ethambutol,pyrazinamide,isoniazid.This are the most famous drugs for tb there are many other drugs.

JAUNDICE

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jaundiceJaundice is yellowish discolouration of skin and the whites of eyes will change into yellow.Jaundice is common in all age groups but mainly in new borns or adults.Jaundice is usually harmless condition to some extent.508 million people live in 31 countries are at risk according to WHO(World Health Organization).

People who haven’t been vaccinated for yellow fever and who lives in areas highly populated by mosquitoes are at high risk.According to WHO.

SYMPTOMS OF JAUNDICE-

Yellow fever is the other name for jaundice. yellow fever symptoms comes quickly with in 3-6 days of exposure.Initial stage symtpoms are joint aches,headches, muscle pain and fever.Symptoms have three stages.

STAGE 1-    This is called as acute stage which lasts for 3-4 days were we have symptoms of back ache,fever,loss of appetite.

STAGE 2- This is called as remission stage in this stage symptoms go away and person starts feeling better.Mostly people recover at this stage.

STAGE 3-This is called as toxic phase.This is serious of all phases.You have symptoms of decreased urination,abdominal pain, vomiting with blood,kidney and liver failure and most important is there is yellow discolouration of white parts of eyes,skin and bleeding may come from nose,mouth and eyes.

Jaundice is of three types pre hepatic,Hepatic and Post hepatic.

PRE HEPATIC STAGE-This stage is due to excessive destruction of red blood cells.

-TRANSFUSION if a patient is given different blood group of blood or infected.

-Immune reaction to RBCS-several types of cancer and immune system that react with RBC and destroy them.

-MALARIA- parasites of malaria develop in RBC cells so they cause destruction.

-ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETAILS- It is a condition of new borns in which there is marked presence of too many immature red blood cells in baby’s blood.This is when a baby’s mother has a different blood type,Antibodies from mother may leak into baby’s circulation and destroy blood cells. This cause destruction of red blood cells.

-High bilirubin levels in new borns even in the absence of blood type incompatibility.

-Poisons.Snake and spider venom containing certain toxins and chemicals which directly affect on red blood cells.

-HEREDITARY-Hereditary deffects are also common which cause defects in red blood cells.

There are no specific symptoms of pre hepatic jaundice except fever and head ache as stool and urine colour are normal.

HEPATIC JAUNDICE-Liver diseases of all kinds, certain medication,hepatitis,organs ability to keep up with bilirubin processing. urine colour is dark and stool colour is normal

POST HEPATIC JAUNDICE-Basically the jaundice is caused by failure of soluble bilirubin to reach the intestine and left out in the liver commonest cause presence of stones in ducts in biliary system other cause birth defects some drugs and pregnancy on rare occasion. Urine is dark in colour and Stools is dark.

TREATMENT-

-iv FLUIDS in case of dehydration.

-blood transfusion.

-Supportive care.

-Reduce alcohol consumption.

-Rest.

-Medications.

-Antibiotics.

-If in new borns exposing the baby to special colour lights and this therapy is called as Photo therapy.

Depression and Anxiety

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DEPRESSION

MOA-cycle-of-depression-and-anxietyDepression is a Disorder which Cause feeling of Sadness & loss of Interest.You May Lead To Emotional&Physical Problems By Depression.

Depression Can Differ In Males and females.It isn’t Clear Why Men and Women may Experience Depression Differently.

MALE DEPRESSION- Often Goes Undiagnosed for Reason.

-RESTING MENTAL- Even  You Suspect Depression You may avoid diagnosis and Health Treatment as You’re Worried that Depression might Damage your carrier& Cause Family& Friends to lose respect for you.

-FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE DEPRESSION- For men being sad or emotional is not Primary Depression Symptoms.So We Might Fail to Recognize Depression.

SYMPTOMS-

-Irritability

-Headache

-Feel restless

-Blame others

-Feeling isolated

-Use alcohol,TV,Sports

FEMALE DEPRESSION-Condition Can Impact areas of life like Social life,carrer,Relationship.Depression Is More Common In Womens Than Males.According to NMHA(National Mental Health Association) One In Eight Women Will Develop Depression.

SYMTOMS-

-Suicidal Death

-Loss Of Intrest

-Feeling Hopeless

-Blame Themselves

-Feel Slow Down

-Death Of Loved Ones

-Use Food Friends,Love To Self Medicate

FEMALE DEPRESSION MAY CAUSE  DUE TO BIOLOGICAL CAUSES-

-PREGNANCY- Because Of Hormonal Changes, Miscarage,Unwanted Pregnancy

-INFERTILITY

-MENSTURAL PROBLEMS-Hormonal Changes In Menstural Cycle,Irritability,Emotional reactivity.

-SEASONAL VARIATIONS-In Winters as Sun Light Is Low It May Cause Depression.

TREATMENT OF MALE & FEMALE DEPRESSION-

-Expose Yourself To Sunlight.

-Shopping For Womens Best Way To Divert Depression.

-Consult Health Professionals-This May Prevent Additional Depression.

-Change In Life Style.

-MEDICATIONS-

ANTI DEPRESSENTS- Anti Depressents Like TRICYCLINE ANTI DEPRESSION,SELECTIVE SEROTONIN RE UPTAKE INHIBITOR.

MOOD STABLIZER-LITHIUM can be used as mood stablizer.This Medications Can Be Prescribed By Only Doctor not to be given To Common Man Easily.

 

DIABETES

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Diabetes is a life long disease that effect the way your body handles glucose or any kind of sugar.

2000px-Main_symptoms_of_diabetes.svg4.9 million deaths were reported in 2014.In 2012,1.5 million deaths were reported world wide according to WHO( world health organization).

Diabetes is classified into 2 types-

Type 1

Type 2

TYPE 1-Though it can develop at any age only 5% of people with diabetes have this form. It is also called as Juvenile diabetes.It is insulin dependent.It does not produce insulin which is needed to convert sugar & food into energy needed for daily life.More common in whites than African,Americans.Affects mens and womens equally.It starts under age 20 but can happen at any age.Diagnosed in young adults and children.

CAUSES-1.It usually happens when immune system destroyes call in pancreas called as beta cells( which make insulin).

2.GENETIC-If you have close relative such as parent,brother,sister with type 1 diabetes you have 6% of developing the risk with out relatives 0.5% can develop in people who have HLA(Human Leukocyte Antigen).Different HLA leads to Rheumatoid arthritis.

3.ENVIRONMENTAL.

SYMPTOMS-

-Blurred vision.

-Extreme Hunger.

-Bed Wetting in children.

-Dramatic weight loss.

– Feeling tired all time.

-Thirsty.

-Itching on genital organs.

TREATMENT-There is no permanent treatment of diabetes,so control your symptoms to prevent health problems developing later in life.Eat healthy food,balanced

diet,Get regular physical activity,Insulin injection or portable pump.inject insulin before your meals,using small needle under your skin.

TYPE 2- It is the most common form of diabetes also called as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM).It is insulin resistance.And it is characterized by hyper glycemia(High b.p).Type 2 is usually because it doesnt use insulin properly.At first pancreas makes insulin to make up for it,over time it cant keep and make enough insulin to keep Blood glucose normal.About 8,992 adults who participated in first national heath and nutrition examination survey have increased risk of type-2 diabetes.This is more common in age group of (25-50).

CAUSES-1.AGE-Being age of 40(over 25 for south asia)

2.GENETIC- parents,brother,sister having diabets automatically you may have chance of getting diabets.

3.WEIGHT-Being obese 4 out of 5 people with type 2 are over weight.

4.POOR EATING HABITS-Having beverages,refined food,Having high calorie food.

5.SLEEP HABITS- Sleep disturbances affect the body balance of insulin and blood sugar by increase the demand on pancreas.

 

Symptoms-

-Dry mouth.

-Head ache.

-Un explained weight loss.

-Irritability.

-Recurrent injections.

-Cuts,wond heal slowly.

TREATMENT- Developing food habits,Weight control,Physical activity,Blood sugar control, medications such as-Acarbose,Metformin,Rosigliyazone.

CORONARY HEART DISEASE

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Coronary heart disease is one of the top most disease in India.Every year the disease claims about 1.4 million lives.

coronary-heart-diseaseCoronary heart disease actually means deposition of waxy substance called plauque in arteries which are provide oxygen and nutrition of heart.It may also cause damage of inner layer of artery.

Damage of arteries cause  due to –

-Sedentary lifestyle.

-High blood sugar in body.

-High cholestrol.

-Smoking.

-Alcohol consumption.

-May be genetics at times.

Coronary heart disease may develop breathlessness in a period of time and may also develop chest pain ,heart attack and Heart failure.

-Chest pain usually happens when blood flow in the arteries that supply heart is blocked.Chest pain may cause in cold climate or after meal or when your upset or disturbed,depressed cause of any situation symptoms of chest pain are pain shifting to arms,neck,jaw,throat or discomfort in chest or their is a feeling of chocking.

-Heart attack usually happens where there is blood clot on top of plaque in coronary artery.Heart attack stops oxygen supply and blood supply to heart.Symptoms of Heart attack are feeling dizziness,breathlesness,sweating,feeling heavy or a feeling like some one is sqeezing your chest.

-Heart failure where heart is not that strong to pump blood to your body and again pumping back blood to Heart.

Treatment of coronary heart disease include lifestyle changes,medicine and medical procedure

This Treatment should be done till we are relieved by symptoms,Reducing blockage of plaque,Widening or doing by passing surgery of blocked arteris,Prevent further complications.

Health diet this has a major role to prevent coronary heart disease this may prevent or reduce cholestrol formation or High blood presurre.Certain life style changes may also prevent coronary heart disease it can also reduce blockage of heart arteries certain fruits like apples,bananas,oranges,pears.Whole grain cereals like oat meal will reduce cholestrol formation.Kidney beans,chick peas and black eyed peas and green leafy vegetables, carrots,cabbage may also reduce risk of coronary heart disease.Doctors say dat broccoli is the best vegetable for almost prevention of any disease.Avoid out side food as it contains high cholestrol so consumption of more outside food with lot of calories may also lead to coronary heart disease.

Usage of olive oil and low quantity of oil in food reduces blokage.Doctors suggest that usage of olive oil is good for heart if only used in limited quantities.

Avoid smoking and also alcohol consumption  though its risk is limited but it is better to avoid as we heard that “Prevention is better than cure”.consumption of 3 or more drinks per day and also smokes may cause coronary heart disease.Alcohol and smoking may cause narrowing of arteries,deposition of plaque fat like material on the arteries.Alcohol consumption usually causes obesity,High blood pressure so this may lead to coronary heart disease.

Exercise regular working out can reduce risk factor of coronary heart disease.Because it reduces and burns calories in our body by releasing sweat so this is the best way to avoid coronary heart diesease or to prevent it.

Surgeries like placement of angioplasty,valve disease treatment,cardioversion,Heart transplant,Lead extraction,Placement of artifical pacemaker reduce coronary heart disease this is succesfull in 80% cases.

Medications like diuretics,aspirin,digoxin,nitrates and many more can be given to reduce blokage of arteries.

BREAST CANCER

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BREAST CANCER &IMPORTANCE OF SELF EXAMINATION OF BREAST

cancerBreast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer of death in world wide.More common in developed,western countries.In African-American women,it is more aggressive.It is less common in Japan,Taiwan.It is second most carcinoma in females.Incidence is 19-34%.Median age is 47 years. Carcinoma in one breast increase the risk of developing carcinoma on opposite breast by 3-4 times. It is more common after middle age,but can occur at any age group,after 20yrs.It can be familial in 2-5% cases.

IDENTIFIABLE RISK FACTORS-

-WOMEN-women are 100 times more likely to have breast cancer as compared to men.

-AGE-Carcinoma breast is very rare below 20 years of age.

-RACE-Highest in whites,rare in Japan and Taiwan.

-BREAST CANCER AND HEREDITARY FACTORS-BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes have been found in short arm of chromosome 17 in women with a family history of the breast. BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 are genes associated with increased risk.

-GEOGRAPHICAL- Carcinoma of the breast is the disease of white,western,women.It is rare in japan and taiwan.

-ENDOCRINAL CAUSES-

It is more coomon in Early menarche and late menopause stage.

More children,each child breastfed longer.

More abortions and each occuring later increases risk.

-DIET-Increased risk has been found in post menopausal obese women and is due to increased synthesis of oestrogen in the body fat.

IMPORTANCE OF SELF EXAMINATION OF BREAST

As it is more common in age groups after 40 years it is important to self examine the breast on regular basis.

-Begin by looking at your breasts in the mirrow with your shoulders straight and your arms on your hips.you have to look at their size if its normal,shape,colour.

-Feel your breasts while lying down,using your right hand to feel your left breast and then left hand to feel your right breast.use a firm smooth touch with the first few finger pads on your hand,keeping fingers flat and together.Use a circular motion,about the size of a quarter.

-feel your breast while you are standing or sitting.Many women find this as their easiest way to feel their breast is when their skin is wet and slippery,so it can be done in the shower.

-look for any signs of fluid coming out of one or both nipples.

IF YOU FIND ANY LUMP,DISCHARGE,REDNESS immediately consult a doctor and get a mammography done.Depending on the doctors advice you might required further diagnostic managment like fine needle aspiration cytology.

TREATMENT-chemotherapy,surgery,Radiation therapy,

PROGNOSIS-Early stage breast cancer have better prognosis than later stage.About 90% patients detected in early stage can survive atleast for 5 years.Around 95 out of every 100 women diagnosed with breast cancer 95% survive for a year or more after daignosis.Almost 90 out of 100 women with survive for 5 years or more after diagnosis.Almost 80 out of every 100 women 80% will survive for 10 years or more after diagnosis.Around 65 out of 100 women are expected to survive for more than 20 years after diagnosis.

ACNE

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acne_400Acne is a type of skin disease characterized by areas of greasy skin,pimples, black and white heads.Sabaceous glands found near surface of the skin get attached to the hair follicles this lubricate hair and skin to stop drying out they cant produce oily substance called sebum so acne is formed.Commenest problem through out the world in both the sexes.It is usually formed when hair follicles under skin clog up.Mostly acne is formed on face,neck,back and many more other regions.

CAUSES OF ACNE-

-Diet -Eating oily food and junk food may cause acne.

-Consumption of water is less.

-Stress.

-Acne is common after puberty where there is hormonal changes.

-Dirty skin and poor hygiene.

-Sun bathing.

-Wearing backpacks which cause pressure.

-Smoking can cause acne in older people.

-Periods and pregnancy-some people devlop acne just before their period.In first three months of their pregnancy ACNE is common.

-GENETICS-Genetics is also one more reason for acne.If your mom or dad is having acne that means reason for your acne is genetics.

GRADES OF ACNE-Acne is divided into four types.

GRADE 1-It is the mildest grade acne commonly consists primarily of blackhead and white heads that suffer no inflammation or reddening and are most often seen in adolescents in the nose and forehead.

GRADE 2-Moderate acne.Black heads and white heads can break out they come in large numbers with some appearing slight inflammation outbreaks in grade 2 appear on cheeks, chin and jaw.

GRADE 3-If it is left untreated.Acne in this stage has reddening and has inflammation with pus and in this grade if we try to remove it and if the acne is deeper there is high chance of having scar.

GRADE 4- It happens if the grade 3 is also left untreated.In this it has cyst also so it is painful.It has chance of spreading beyond the face,neck and shoulders.This stage may even require cosetic surgery.

TREATMENT OF ACNE-

-PAPAYA- It is the best thing for acne.Now a days acne are used in a lot of beauty products and market.It has enzyme papain which reduces inflammation and pus forming acne.

-CONSUMPTION OF WATER-Doctors say that consumption of minimum 4-5 litters water per day may reduce acne formation.

-OAT MEAL- oat meal cleans skin pores and absorbs excess oil so acne is reduced.

-TOOTH PASTE- This is the easiest chepeast method and the best remedies for acne.

-USE OF WARM WATER-cold water closes pores and warm water open pores and opens dirt and bacteria present will flow out through the skin.

POTATO-potato has anti inflammatory action so it can reduce the formation of acne.

Abscess

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Five_day_old_AbscessAbscess is basically swelling with in body tissue containing pus with blood.The middle of abscess contains dead cells,bacteria.This area begins to grow and cause further inflammation of surrounding tissue.Generally abscess is common in people with weakened immune system.

Abscess is painful and it is warm to touch.Abscess may occur any where in body.But more common sites are armpits,vagina,anus,around tooth.

Causes of Abscess is basically obstruction of oil and sweat glands,Inflammation of hair follicles,puncture of skin wall.Germs present occupy the punctures and cause obstruction.

It is common in patients with diabetes,burns,wonds,alcoholism,AIDS and many more.First indication of abscess or recurrent formation of skin abscess is the indication that some thing is wrong with your immune system.

Abscess eventually burst by themselves.Home remedies can also be helpfull for abscess if it is small